US data focus for Monday – Q1 advance GDP – the range of expectations to watch (and why)

On Thursday at 1230 GMT, which is 0830 US Eastern time, we get the advance reading for economic growth in US for the nau to March quarter:

The Federal Reserve will be paying attention to assess the strength of the US economy. Stronger than expected will boost the case to delay rate cuts, and vice versa if its weaker than expected. It’ll have implications too for Japan’s Ministry of Finance (and the Bank of Japan). If growth surprises to the topside it’ll spur USD/JPY buying and delay potential intervention to support the yen (at the margin).

Consensus expectations are in the table below. This snapshot is from the ForexLive economic data calendar, access it here.

The range of expectations is 1.0% to 3.1% y/y vs. that 2.5% consensus.

Goldman Sachs is at 3.1%:


Why is knowledge of such ranges important?

Data results that fall outside of market low and high expectations tend to move markets more significantly for several reasons:

  • Surprise Factor: Markets often price in expectations based on forecasts and previous trends. When data significantly deviates from these expectations, it creates a surprise effect. This can lead to rapid revaluation of assets as investors and traders reassess their positions based on the new information.

  • Psychological Impact: Investors and traders are influenced by psychological factors. Extreme data points can evoke strong emotional reactions, leading to overreactions in the market. This can amplify market movements, especially in the short term.

  • Risk Reassessment: Unexpected data can lead to a reassessment of risk. If data significantly underperforms or outperforms expectations, it can change the perceived risk of certain investments. For instance, better-than-expected economic data may reduce the perceived risk of investing in equities, leading to a market rally.

  • Triggering of Automated Trading: In today’s markets, a significant portion of trading is done by algorithms. These automated systems often have pre-set conditions or thresholds that, when triggered by unexpected data, can lead to large-scale buying or selling.

  • Impact on Monetary and Fiscal Policies: Data that is significantly off from expectations can influence the policies of central banks and governments. For example, in the case of the data due today, weaker than expected will fuel speculation of nearer and larger Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) rate cuts. A stronger (i.e. higher) sales report will diminish such expectations.

  • Liquidity and Market Depth: In some cases, extreme data points can affect market liquidity. If the data is unexpected enough, it might lead to a temporary imbalance in buyers and sellers, causing larger market moves until a new equilibrium is found.

  • Chain Reactions and Correlations: Financial markets are interconnected. A significant move in one market or asset class due to unexpected data can lead to correlated moves in other markets, amplifying the overall market impact.

This article was written by Eamonn Sheridan at Source